Extremely timely, given the resurgence of the so-called "Great Replacement" theory of white Nationalism today. The 1790 Naturalization Act was biased in allowing any free white person to become a citizen of the new republic; all others need not apply. This presentation demonstrates the historical effort to keep America white. Despite this, the struggle also enjoined an America of diversity. E Pluribus Unum can be interpreted two ways: homogeneity or heterogeneity. America has become a primer for other nations today who are struggling with issues of homogeneity and heterogeneity. America has been a petri dish.